The Financial domain concerns the way in which incomes are generated from a specific service or product, and about the way in which risks, investments and revenues are shared between the different actors in the network. An example of this is innovations in pricing. Price comparison websites (kieskeurig.nl; preisroboter.de) provide insight into the prices from different providers and lead to price adjustments on a daily basis in order to be able to sell at ‘lowest prices’. Prices are adjusted dynamically to demand, competitors and seasonal fluctuations and data about other variables in which patterns are discovered that determine the sale of products (for example, see Daphne Stores). Alternatively, ‘exclusive’ clubs are formed in which members can buy clothing at a substantially reduced price (www.vente-exclusive.com, fashiondeal.nl, Brandinvites.nl). Loyalty programmes (customer cards) and also coupons are making a return with providers such as Groupon, Sweetdeal and Friendstix where substantial price reductions can be achieved by means of temporary and local special offers.
A considerable amount of innovations concerns payment methods, which are often managed by technological development and are focused on customer convenience. A collaboration between Samsung and Paypal means that Paypal is pre-installed on the Gear2 Watch. A development like Near Field Communication (NFC) incorporated in, amongst other things, bank cards or mobile phones makes it possible to make payments easily and quickly. By using the PowaTag app, you can buy products using your Smartphone by scanning the products you see in advertisements in magazines or on TV, on billboards or that you see other people already have. The products are identified by an underlying PowaTag database, and one can immediately proceed to make a purchase. Impulse buying is facilitated in this way. Via integrated Bluetooth technology, the consumer can also be sent targeted special offers, and retailers can send information and special offers to customers who are shopping in the area of a location with PowaTag Bluetooth beacons. The shopping habits, buying history and personal preference of their customers are thus known to the retailer as soon as the customer steps over the threshold.
Transactions do not always need to involve money or alternative currencies (Bitcoins). Special K had an offer in Australia with a store where you could pay for a product with a ‘post’: posting a photograph of the product on social media. It turned out to be a marketing stunt because the only thing the customer received was a sample of the actual product. A more serious development is that of consumer-to-consumer transactions. On the one hand this concerns marketplaces where consumers can trade between themselves, with most well-known examples being ebay.com and marktplaats.nl. This has expanded into all kinds of products and services, such as travel (airbnb.com), hiring a car from someone local (snappcar.com), selling homemade products (etsy.com) and peer-to-peer lending without the intervention of a bank (prosper.com). On the other hand, it is also about borrowing and exchanging, as is the case on peerby.com, where you can borrow things from local people, or thuisafgehaald.nl where you share meals with your neighbours. This so-called ‘C2C-market’ has grown enormously in recent years. However, some scepticism about all of the enthusiastic stories is being called for, for example, SnappCar’s alleged success is open to question (Wijman, 2014). Sharing personal goods (car, telephone, clothing) is indeed something completely different from sharing digital goods or your tastes (Spotify, LibraryThing). It is expected that ‘sharing’ will play a less significant role in fashion because consumers say they are less willing to share clothes (Shopping2020, 2014).
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Shopping2020. 2014. De business modellen van de toekomst. Retrieved from www.shopping2020.nl.
Wijman, E. 2014. Dat autodelen gebeurt allen in Amsterdam. NRC, 28-29 juni, p. 9 (Opine & Debat).